Terra Livre dan Solidaritas Global

Brasilia, Brazil (27 April 2017) – Saya, Devi Anggraini dan Jhontoni Tarihoran beruntung mewakili AMAN, Perempuan AMAN dan BPAN dalam Acampento Terra Livre (ATL), yakni pertemuan tahunan Masyarakat Adat se-Brazil, yang diadakan selama 1 minggu di Brasilia, di jantung ibukota Brazil. ATL kali ini adalah yang ke-14 kalinya dilaksanakan dan merupakan salah satu yang terbesar, dihadiri oleh 3.300 orang utusan Masyarakat Adat dari lima region besar di Brazil termasuk Amazon. Ribuan anggota komunitas, para tetua, perempuan, generasi muda, anak-anak hingga balita, datang menggunakan bus-bus antar region dan menginap di tenda-tenda yang disiapkan panitia atau yang dibawa sendiri oleh peserta.

Issue penting tahun ini adalah adanya upaya anggota Mahkamah Konstitusi di Brazil (yang juga berfungsi sebagai Mahkamah Agung), untuk melakukan amandemen Konstitusi Brazil, khususnya bagian yang mengakui hak-hak Masyarakat Adat. Di dalam Konstitusi Brazil, ada dua pasal yang secara khusus mengakui hak Masyarakat Adat dan cukup kuat, meskipun implementasinya masih sangat rendah. Mahkamah Konstitusi yang terdiri dari dua Chamber (Kamar), terpecah. Sebagian mendukung amandemen, sebagian tidak. Masyarakat Adat menengarai ini akibat ulah para lobi-lobi dari proyek-proyek pembanguan raksasa di Brazil yang ingin mengambil alih wilayah-wilayah adat untuk bisnis, termasuk dalih sarana publik.

Lihat juga Brazil indigenous protest over land rights turns violent

Selasa kemarin 3-4000 orang (dengan para pendukung termasuk aktivis-aktivis gerakan sosial di Brazil), melakukan aksi demonstrasi di depan gedung parlemen Brazil yang berakibat bentrokan fisik. Polisi menembak gas air mata dan peluru karet, dibalas dengan desingan anak panah dari para warrior Masyarakat Adat. Empat orang sempat ditahan, tetapi kemudian dibebaskan. Dalam aksi tersebut, Masyarakat Adat membawa banyak peti mati dan menaruhnya di depan gedung parlemen sebagai protes terhadap pembunuhan puluhan saudara-saudara mereka dalam setahun terakhir, karena mempertahankan wilayah adatnya. Masyarakat Adat menuntut “demarcação ja!” atau menuntut demarkasi dan pengakuan atas wilayah-wilayah adat.

Kami terlibat dalam beberapa diskusi, mendapat kesempatan memperkenalkan AMAN, PA serta BPAN. Dan mengenalkan “AHOY!” serta “HORAS!”

Beberapa hal menarik yang kami amati misalnya, setiap orang yang hadir, sangat bangga dan percaya diri dengan identitasnya sebagai Masyarakat Adat. Hampir semua mengecat tubuh (bagian dari tradisi) dan mengenakan berbagai ornamen bulu burung serta manik-manik. Wilayah yang cenderung panas membuat hampir tidak ada produk tenunan untuk pakaian, karena nyaris semua tidak berpakaian, namun bangga dengan body painting ciri khas mereka. Adat istiadat; tarian, lagu, musik, bahasa, seni perang, seni rupa mereka, masih sangat kental dan kuat. Adanya pemimpin-pemimpin perempuan yang kuat juga menjadi hal menarik lainnya. Buat saya, itu luar biasa. Di Latin Amerika yang kental budaya “laki-laki yang memimpin”, di sini perempuan berperan kuat, meskipun di komunitas-komunitas, perempuan adat masih memperjuangkan hak-haknya.

Masih ada dua hari pertemuan di mana masih akan didiskusikan isu-isu prioritas yang akan menjadi resolusi dan deklarasi penting dari Terra Livre tahun ini. Masih banyak yang mesti kami pelajari, bagaimana organisasi-organisasi di sini bekerja, bagaimana struktur dan keanggotaan, bagaimana sistem komunikasi dan koordinasi, bagaimana proses-proses pengambilan keputusan dll.

Baca juga Brazil indigenous groups clash with police in Brasilia

Yang jelas, persoalan di Brazil dan di Indonesia tiada beda. Perampasan wilayah adat untuk kepentingan bisnis, baik perkebunan, logging dan bendungan raksasa serta kriminalisasi terhadap anggota komunitas terjadi dimana-mana, bahkan pembunuhan terhadap pemimpin-pemimpin perlawanan di kampung-kampung. Satukan semangat, bangun solidaritas global!

 

Mina Setra

Indigenous Peoples, Guardians of the Earth

Our life as indigenous peoples along with our customary lands and territories that we own are an interconnected unity. For our survival, we have to build and protect our strong relationship with our lands and territories. Because our lands and territories are the sources of our life and survival, our history, culture, way of life, oral tradition, literacy, belief, art, as well as the source of our livelihoods. We must respect, preserve, mantain and defend our ancestral lands in order to be sustainable for our future generations.

 

As indigenous youth, we testify that:

 

  1. In our costumary lands, there are indigenous institutions which are able to collectively guard the integrity of our collective territories, the nature and harmony within indigeous peoples, including norms and customary laws.
  2. Our customary lands and territories are managed, protected and preserved by our ancestors for thousands of years. The ancestors had developed and enriched customary governance over land use along with its resourches to make sure sustainability of livelihood to be  passed down to the future generation. Our ancestors had promoted justice and equality for common interest and they had dedicated their own life to defend customary land territoty. Accordingly, we are sure that customary land territory is a saving for the future generation.
  3. Land grabbing, violence and criminalization against indigenous peoples and how the government diminishes indigenous communities through suppresions including discriminating laws have lead to the worsening of social, culture, economics and environment of indigenous peoples as well as to the current multidimentional crisis faced by many indigenous communities.
  4. The lack of recognition and protection over indigenous lands have led to massive incidents where indigenous peoples are the main victims.
  5. The crisis faced by indigenous peoples has been exacerbated by the increased number of indigenous youths who have forgotten their local wisdom, as a result of the rapid change of socio-cultural, including the spread of consumerist culture introduced by global market to indigenous communities.
  6. Many of indigenous women and indigenous persons with disabilites experience massive violations within their communities and territories as well as discrimination from the mainstream society. The issues they are currently facing prevent them from participating in broader decision making processes, as well as decision making process within their own communities. This shoud not continue.
  7. The extreme climate change caused natural dissaster including extinction of plants and a number of forest products which affects livelihoods of indigenous peoples. The approach of indigenus peoples to mitigate the climate change in some cases even being labelled as criminal offense.

 

As indigenous youth, we call for:

  1. Return our customary lands and territories, which we inherit from our ancestors.
  2. Provide recognition and protection over indigenous peoples and their costumary lands and territories through law and regulation making at all levels.
  3. Stop criminalization against indigenous peoples who are struggling to defend their customary lands and territories.
  4. If we want the earth to remain adequate for living in the present and the future, support indigenous peoples in managing and protecting their customary lands and territories in accordance to their traditional knowledge.
  5. Increased participation of youth in decision making processes concerning lands and territories and promote the process of knowledge transfer from indigenous elders to the young people.
  6. Preserve the integrity and sustainability of costumary lands and territories and prevent all forms of land grabbing.

 

 

 

 

[Jhontoni Tarihoran]

BARISAN PEMUDA ADAT NUSANTARA

MENJADI PEMUDA ADAT

KONTAK KAMI

Sekretariat BPAN, Alamat, Jln. Sempur, Bogor

officialbpan@gmail.com

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